Approximately 10-20% of the U.S population suffers from magnesium deficiency. Many people do not care about their deficiencies, but deficiencies are at the root cause of many disorders and chronic illnesses. A lack of magnesium, for example, can adversely affect the heart, muscles, sleep, energy level and feeling of well-being. Are you having trouble sleeping at night but are fatigued during the day? Do you have trouble with digestion and are chronically constipated? You may be suffering from a magnesium deficiency.
What About Magnesium in Food?
Magnesium levels in food have declined by 80-90% according to some research. That means getting magnesium from food, unless it is added, is difficult. Also, many medications, such as a popular antacid. Omeprazole, causes low magnesium levels
Won’t Magnesium Deficiency be Corrected with a Multivitamin?
Couple a low intake with drug- nutrient interactions along with a medical profession not trained to monitor magnesium levels when warranted and we have a population deficiency problem that can easily be corrected through supplementation. In most cases, your One- A- Day won’t do it, however. A scrupulous look at your multivitamin label will often find magnesium lacking. The reason it is often not included is it overpowers the smaller minerals also needed by the body like selenium. So, read the label before you feel confident your multivitamin is meeting your magnesium needs.
Forms of Magnesium
Magnesium comes bound to another molecule which affects how well it is absorbed and the action of the molecule in the body. Examples include:
Magnesium sulfate: Found abundantly in Epsom salts, it has good absorption with low toxicity. It is wonderful for tissue application and is absorbed well through the skin. It is used intravenously to prevent preterm labor, for bronchospasm, acute nephritis, and toxemia of pregnancy.
Magnesium Glycinate: This form of magnesium is one of the gentlest on the stomach. It is this form that is used for those recovering from bariatric surgery as it is the best absorbed and is also the supplement of choice for those recovering from low blood levels. It is the ideal form of magnesium for those who can not tolerate the laxative effects of magnesium oxide or magnesium citrate. Glycine, the molecule bound to magnesium, has a calming effect on the nerves and is supportive of cognitive function. It is often the form used for migraine headaches.
Magnesium L-Threonate: This is a newer form of magnesium and research is showing it to have a cognitive and neuropathic advantage in the animal model. The fact that this form of magnesium restored memory to aging rodents poses possible applications at a clinical level that need to be studied further.
It is the only form of magnesium that has been shown to penetrate the blood brain barrier thus directly raising brain magnesium levels. Anecdotal evidence suggests that magnesium L-threonate may help get rid of “brain fog” and helps with vestibular migraine. The downside is it is expensive and new and needs further research.
Magnesium Malate: Most commonly used form for fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. It is said to have a high bioavailability, supports energy production and the ability to chelate toxic metals. Malate also creates less gastrointestinal stress and irritation than oxide and citrate. It may be too energizing for some.
Magnesium Citrate: It is great for relieving constipation. It is not as bioavailable as the other forms of magnesium.
Magnesium Oxide: Not very bioavailable and is used most frequently as a laxative or for heartburn.
What is the Dosage for Magnesium?
Most experts agree that 3-4 mg/kg/day** will replete magnesium levels. However, keep in mind, though, that the recommended daily intake for adults for magnesium is between 310-400 mg per day depending on age and sex so this repletion dosage may be on the low side for some. Repletion can be done based on conditions as below:
*Cluster headache: 1 gram of magnesium
*Vasoplastic Angina: 65 mg/kg given by IV
*Constipation: 8.75-25 g of magnesium citrate in a 150 ml to 300 ml solution
*Indigestion: 400-1200 mg of magnesium hydroxide up to 4x per day; 800 mg of magnesium oxide may also be used
Low blood levels: 3 grams of magnesium sulfate taken every 6 hours for 4 doses according to one reference. A glycinate version would probably be more effective. A 5% solution of magnesium chloride for 16 weeks may be used
*Heart disease: 800-1200 of magnesium oxide for 3 months
*Migraine: 400 mg/day
*Muscle Cramps 400 mg/day
**Example of calculation of magnesium intake for 125 pound woman. Convert 125 lbs into kg. by dividing by 2.2 = 56.8 kg. multiplied by 3-4 = 170.4-227.2 mg.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Low Magnesium Levels?
· Muscle twitches or cramps
· Lethargy and fatigue
· Irregular heartbeats
· Nausea and vomiting
· Personality changes
· Anxiety and panic attacks
· High blood pressure
· Type 2 diabetes
· Acid reflux
Foods High in Magnesium
· Leafy vegetables
· Tuna fish
· Pumpkin seeds
· Dark chocolate
· Whole grains
· Fatty fish
So, Do You Need Magnesium?
Magnesium deficiency is relatively common in clinical practice but goes largely unrecognized due to a lack of testing. For example, low magnesium has been found in 84% of premenopausal women with osteoporosis. Magnesium deficiency may persist despite normal serum levels. It has been suggested that the lower limit of normal for serum magnesium actually references an early deficiency. Measuring red blood cell magnesium is more accurate than serum magnesium.
What are the high-risk groups for low magnesium?
· Those with digestive or absorption issues
· Those over 60
· Those on proton pump inhibitors such as Omeprazole
· Those with diabetes
If you are experiencing symptoms such as those in the list above and are in one of the high-risk groups listed, you may be at risk for magnesium deficiency. Wouldn’t it be great if you could start sleeping better and have more energy just by taking a supplement or changing your diet?
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#magnesium, #hypomagnesaemia, #chronicfatiguesyndrome, #insomnia, #magnesiumsupplements, #magnesiumdeficiency
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), a brain disorder that ravages your memory, robbed 5.5 million Americans of their quality of life in 2019. Two-thirds of those affected were women, the traditional caretakers of our society. African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasians to be diagnosed with this illness and there is no cure. But there is hope.
Research is showing that diet may delay the signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease and we all know that every moment we can spend with our loved one where we don’t have to wrestle with the side-effects of this disease are precious and to be treasured.
Studies from Rush University in Chicago have found that the MIND diet, a combination of the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet, may decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s by as much as 50% and can still protect the brain even when not followed rigorously.
What is the MIND Diet?
The MIND diet was born out of blending the DASH diet for hypertension which focused on limiting sodium in the diet while increasing vegetables and low fat dairy with the Mediterranean diet, a diet focused on increasing vegetables, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fish, whole grains and omega 3 fatty acids.
Researchers believe that those who follow the diet for years will receive the greatest protective benefits. The time to start a MIND diet is when you find out you have Alzheimer’s Disease in the family as it will lower your risk of developing it. For those who already have it, its not too late to start the diet to delay the progression of AD.
What Does the MIND Diet Do?
The MIND diet emphasizes those foods that protect the brain and restricts those foods that affect the brain adversely. It works because it reduces inflammation of the brain and nerves, it acts as an antioxidant for the tissues, it makes nerve transmission more fluid and decreases neuron loss while improving memory overall.
How Do I Follow a MIND Diet?
As with any major change, start slow. Make a few changes at a time until the MIND diet feels like your normal routine. Soon even grocery shopping will become automatic and you won’t have to pour over lists of foods that you aren’t used to eating or learn new recipes or ways of cooking because it has become a habit. It just takes a little time, one step at a time.
When introducing starchy beans into the diet, do so slowly if it is a new food to the individual. Starchy beans like chickpeas, lentils, kidney beans, fava beans, etc., are not only high in fiber, they may be gas forming and cause bloating if introduced into the diet too quickly. Always introduce increased fiber slowly with 8 glasses of water per day to avoid bloating.
Another trick to lessen gas and bloating from beans is to either soak them overnight, drain and rinse or bring to a boil and drain, rinse and then bring the beans to heat again. Draining the water gets rid of the gassy component present in beans.
Also, some healthy foods can be expensive, a real consideration for most of us. One way to save money is to buy fruits and vegetables in season and freeze them. Don’t use sugar or salt, just freeze them after they’ve been cleaned, label and date them and freeze for later.
MIND Diet Guidelines
The Rules of the Diet Are:
The MIND diet supports vascular health and is protective against vascular dementia. Certain foods used in the MIND diet have been directly linked to improved neurological function or reduced Alzheimer Disease biomarkers in the brain. MIND diet foods reflect nutrients that have been shown in studies to slow cognitive decline, decrease the risk of AD, scour the brain of amyloid plaque and decrease neuron loss.
So, while a cure may not be here, hope is on the horizon for a better quality of life by following the MIND diet.
#Alzheimer's Disease #MIND diet #cognitive #dementia
What is Evidence-Based Medicine?
Defined, evidence-based medicine is the cumulative result of a synthesis of clinical expertise, patient’s values and the best scientific evidence we have available relative to that patient’s care. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) originated in the second half of the 19th century and represents the conscientious use of the best evidence available in making reasonable decisions about patient care.
Gaps Between Research and Practice in Medicine
One of the biggest shortcomings of using EBM is the gap between the release of scientific studies and their adoption by the clinical community. It represents a huge knowledge gap and a barrier to the implementation of the EBM model. For example, in the case of the beneficial use of aspirin in the treatment of heart attack victims, it took almost a decade for it to become a routine practice after the EBM studies were released.
Interestingly, the publication of COVID-19 articles are bypassing some of the usual publication rules and are going right into the search engines. This is to specifically reduce the gap between research and practice, an endeavor much needed in this pandemic.
Classification of Evidence
EBM classifies evidence based on their freedom from biases in the interpretation of the results. The levels of evidence look something like this:
1. Evidence obtained by a meta-analysis of several randomized controlled research (RCR).
2. Evidence from a sole RCR.
3. Evidence from one well designed controlled RCR.
4. Evidence from one quasi-experimental approach.
5. Research case study only.
6. Evidence from one’s clinical practice or case studies.
Each level represents a strength of evidence to ponder in application to a patient’s case or to a public health situation. With EBM a provider can assess the strength of evidence with the risks/benefits of ordering tests and treatments for an individual patient or the strength of evidence for a public health recommendation. We are said to be in an age of EBM.
Five Ways Evidence-Based Medicine Adds Value to the Functional Health Model
1. EBM helps functional health providers stay on top of standardized treatment protocols without reading 17 studies a day by utilizing study classification and priority.
2. Uses timely data to make decisions. This has been greatly aided by the computer age and the development and maintenance of large databases of information that providers can access for research and education.
3. It improves accountability, transparency, and worth. What this means is the patient acquires the best care for the least cost with all variables of the treatment consistent with the values of the patient.
4. Improves the quality of care. Despite the fact that Americans spend more money on healthcare than any other nation in the world, we are the sickest.
5. Improves outcomes. Functional health providers are invested in practicing medicine that works, not just seeing patients on a daily schedule and taking care of urgent ills. They want to see that a prescribed treatment has true value for a patient and that the care received has made a significant impact on that patient’s overall health and well-being.
Functional health represents a fusion of EBM and alternative medicine. It has been argued that functional health practitioners are not evidence-based practitioners. That cannot be further from the truth. Functional health practitioners frequently rely on EBM for treatment decisions and novel approaches to diseases that are on the cutting edge of scientific decisions and novel approaches to diseases.
#evidence-based medicine #EBM #quality control #functional health #evidence
We are in the dark days of a novel pandemic where any glimmer of preventive hope on the horizon is appreciated in this battle. Research has recently sounded the horns of prevention in terms of taking vitamin D to fortify the body’s immune system against the influenza and the novel coronavirus. According to the most recent public health outcry, the most at risk population should be fortifying themselves with 10,000 IU of vitamin D daily in the weeks before winter and then stabilize intake at 5,000 IU per day to maintain blood levels of 40-50 ng/ml.
What Role Does Vitamin D Play in Reducing COVID 19 Risk
Vitamin D acts by 3 mechanisms – maintaining a physical barrier, increasing cellular natural immunity, and increasing adaptive immunity. For example, Vitamin D helps maintain tight gap junctions between cells. Several articles have suggested how viruses disturb junction integrity, increasing infection by the viruses and other microorganisms who can squeeze through the leaky membranes. This is a physical barrier function.
Innate immunity is enhanced through the induction of antimicrobial peptides which exhibit direct antiviral and antimicrobial activities against a spectrum of microbes including enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, fungi and bacteria. These peptides kill the invading pathogens by invading their cell membrane and neutralizing necessary biological activities.
Cellular immunity is enhanced in part by reducing the cytokine storm induced by the innate immune system. The innate immune system generates both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to viral infections. Vitamin D can reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing the expressing of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
Vitamin D supplementation also enhances the expression of genes related to antioxidation relative to increased glutathione production. Increased glutathione production spares the use of vitamin C which has antimicrobial and antioxidant capabilities. Glutathione is a peptide molecule that functions as an antioxidant.
What is the Optimal Blood Level for Vitamin D in Prevention of COVID-19? Research shows that 38 ng/ml was sufficient for reducing community acquired pneumonia although the degree of protection rose as blood level increased with the optimal range being 40-60 ng/ml.
High doses of vitamin D seem to be well tolerated with doses of 60,000 IU/d found in the literature to treat asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, rickets, and tuberculosis in the 1930’s and 40’s. High doses of vitamin D over prolonged periods can damage the kidneys, however, there is no evidence that 20-50 mcg/day cause any harm (800-2000 IU). The tolerable upper limit for vitamin D is 4,000 IU/day.
Obviously, the research on COVID is challenging the tolerable upper limit in its recommendations suggesting that supplementation in the given range could improve outcome of the clinical COVID 19 condition. We have to remember that this is for short periods of time, however, such as the time period before winter and in persons who have low vitamin D and need repletion as well as high risk persons. The rate of deficiency in the US is about 41% for Caucasians and 82.1% for black Americans.
Improvement of Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 with Supplementation.
Recent research results have shown that having a mild clinical outcome rather than a critical outcome were increased approximately 19.61 times with a high vitamin D level. Vitamin D status was found to be significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Of 212 cases of COVID 19, 23.1 % were identified as mild, 27.8 % were ordinary and 26.4 % were severe and about 22.5% were critical. Mean serum vitamin D level was 23.8 ng/ml with < 20 being classified as deficient. Using multinomial logistic regression, a distinct relationship was found between the level of vitamin D and the severity of clinical outcomes for each clinical risk category vs. vitamin D level.
Public Health Call to Action
Research is showing that vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to increased risk of respiratory infection, particularly COVID-19. It is advised by many public health groups that all older adults, hospital inpatients, nursing home residents and other vulnerable groups such as those with darker skins and vegetarians , those who are overweight or obese, smokers and healthcare workers be urgently supplemented with 800-2000 IU of vitamin D to enhance their resistance to COVID 19 and that this advice be quickly extended to the general adult population.
It might be noted that evidence is contradictory. Studies put out by NICE suggest that evidence is inconclusive for a role for vitamin D in the prevention of respiratory infections. However, recent evidence also points to the contrary. Clearly more evidence-based trials are needed before a formal public health call to action can be appreciated in a research sense.
While there is a slight discrepancy between the amounts of vitamin D being recommended, the fact that supplementation is being recommended should not be taken lightly. Every nursing home resident should have it in their care plan to increase vitamin D intake to 2,000-10,000 IU per day depending on their blood levels. Deficient individuals may need to supplement with 10,000 IU 5 days per week for 6 weeks and then drop down to 5,000 IU per day until blood levels reach 50-60 ng/ml and then continue with 800- 2,000 IU/day. Others who have higher blood levels of vitamin D may only need 800 IU per day. The best thing to do is get your blood level for vitamin D measured and then consult with your health care provider for repletion. Nevertheless, no individual should be left with a vitamin D deficiency during this pandemic.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
#COVID-19 #vitaminD #coronavirus #vitamins #vitamin D deficiency